Download e-book for kindle: America's Black Sea Fleet: The U.S. Navy Amidst War and by Robert Shenk

By Robert Shenk

In a high-tempo sequence of operations during the Black Sea, Aegean Sea and jap Mediterranean, a small American fleet of destroyers and different naval vessels answered ably to numerous significant foreign crises together with the final days of the Russian Revolution and the 1920-1922 Turkish Nationalist Revolution. officials and males of the navy's "four-piper" destroyers started by means of investigating conditions at the floor in mainland Turkey correct after international conflict I, and via transporting American reduction groups to ports all through Turkey and Southern Russia to help the tens of millions of orphans and refugees who had survived the wartime Armenian genocide.

Then the destroyers assisted within the ultimate evacuation of 150,000 White Russians from the Crimea to Constantinople (one of the ultimate acts of the Russian Revolution); coordinated the visits of the Hoover grain ships to ports in Southern Russia the place thousands have been enduring a horrendous famine; witnessed and stated at the poor dolorosa of the Greeks of the Pontus regious of Turkey; and, in September of 1922, carried out the evacuation of thousands of Greek and Armenian refugees from burning Smyrna. This latter occasion used to be the cataclysmic end of the Turkish Nationalist Revolutino, which had began in early 1920.

After Smyrna, the destroyers escorted Greek steamers of their rescue of ethnic Christian civilians being expelled from the entire ports of Anatolian Turkey. because the end of an extended struggle among Nationalist Turks and an invading Hellenic Greek military, those humans have been being pressured out in their ancestral houses through the Turks. occasionally American destroyers carried hundreds of thousands of such refugees to pleasant ports all alone climate decks.

Upon the burning of Smyrna of September of 1922, Admiral Mark Bristol's small fleet had grown to a few 26 naval vessels, so much of them destroyers, even supposing a few cruisers, naval fix vessels and provide ships additionally got here, and the battleships Arizona and Utah additionally seemed in brief. It used to be in the course of 1922 that the destroyer BAinbridge rescued 482 of 495 males, ladies and kids from the burning French delivery Vinh lengthy in teh Sea of Marmora. The destroyer entire this through the expedient of ramming the massive French send so the exploding ammunition couldn't proceed to strength the vessels aside. For this motion, Lieut.Commander W. Atlee Edwards used to be provided the Medal of Honor via the US, and the Legion of Honor by means of France.

Over 4 years, Admiral Bristol maintained a powerful grip on American naval and diplomatic affairs during the zone. based on the American Embassy at Constantinople, Bristol additionally labored to extra American company pursuits in Turkey, and tended to desire Turks over Greeks and Armenians within the procedure. Many american citizens have been confident that Bristol was once biased on behalf of the Turks, and 2 army captains risked their careers through talking out approximately imminent Turkish massacres that Bristol desired to hush up.

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America's Black Sea Fleet: The U.S. Navy Amidst War and Revolution, 1919–1923 by Robert Shenk


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